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COMPETITION AND CONSUMER ACT 2010 - SCHEDULE 1

The Schedule version of Part IV

Part 1 -- Schedule version of Part IV

Note:       See section 150A.

Division 1 -- Cartel conduct

Subdivision A -- Introduction

45AA   Simplified outline

                   The following is a simplified outline of this Division:

•       This Division sets out parallel offences and civil penalty provisions relating to cartel conduct.

•       A person must not make, or give effect to, a contract, arrangement or understanding that contains a cartel provision.

•       A cartel provision is a provision relating to:

               (a)     price-fixing; or

              (b)     restricting outputs in the production and supply chain; or

               (c)     allocating customers, suppliers or territories; or

              (d)     bid-rigging;

       by parties that are, or would otherwise be, in competition with each other.

45AB   Definitions

                   In this Division:

"annual turnover" , of a body corporate during a 12-month period, means the sum of the values of all the supplies that the body corporate, and any body corporate related to the body corporate, have made, or are likely to make, during the 12-month period, other than:

                     (a)  supplies made from any of those bodies corporate to any other of those bodies corporate; or

                     (b)  supplies that are input taxed; or

                     (c)  supplies that are not for consideration (and are not taxable supplies under section 72-5 of the A New Tax System (Goods and Services Tax) Act 1999 ); or

                     (d)  supplies that are not made in connection with an enterprise that the body corporate carries on; or

                     (e)  supplies that are not connected with Australia.

Expressions used in this definition that are also used in the A New Tax System (Goods and Services Tax) Act 1999 have the same meaning as in that Act.

"benefit" includes any advantage and is not limited to property.

"bid" includes:

                     (a)  tender; and

                     (b)  the taking, by a potential bidder or tenderer, of a preliminary step in a bidding or tendering process.

"evidential burden" , in relation to a matter, means the burden of adducing or pointing to evidence that suggests a reasonable possibility that the matter exists or does not exist.

"knowledge has the same meaning as in the Criminal Code" .

"likely" , in relation to any of the following:

                     (a)  a supply of goods or services;

                     (b)  an acquisition of goods or services;

                     (c)  the production of goods;

                     (d)  the capacity to supply services;

includes a possibility that is not remote.

"obtaining" includes:

                     (a)  obtaining for another person; and

                     (b)  inducing a third person to do something that results in another person obtaining.

"party" has a meaning affected by section 45AC.

"production" includes manufacture, processing, treatment, assembly, disassembly, renovation, restoration, growing, raising, mining, extraction, harvesting, fishing, capturing and gathering.

45AC   Extended meaning of party

                   For the purposes of this Division, if a body corporate is a party to a contract, arrangement or understanding (otherwise than because of this section), each body corporate related to that body corporate is taken to be a party to that contract, arrangement or understanding.

45AD   Cartel provisions

             (1)  For the purposes of this Act, a provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding is a cartel provision if:

                     (a)  either of the following conditions is satisfied in relation to the provision:

                              (i)  the purpose/effect condition set out in subsection (2);

                             (ii)  the purpose condition set out in subsection (3); and

                     (b)  the competition condition set out in subsection (4) is satisfied in relation to the provision.

Purpose/effect condition

             (2)  The purpose/effect condition is satisfied if the provision has the purpose, or has or is likely to have the effect, of directly or indirectly:

                     (a)  fixing, controlling or maintaining; or

                     (b)  providing for the fixing, controlling or maintaining of;

the price for, or a discount, allowance, rebate or credit in relation to:

                     (c)  goods or services supplied, or likely to be supplied, by any or all of the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding; or

                     (d)  goods or services acquired, or likely to be acquired, by any or all of the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding; or

                     (e)  goods or services re-supplied, or likely to be re-supplied, by persons or classes of persons to whom those goods or services were supplied by any or all of the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding; or

                      (f)  goods or services likely to be re-supplied by persons or classes of persons to whom those goods or services are likely to be supplied by any or all of the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding.

Note 1:       The purpose/effect condition can be satisfied when a provision is considered with related provisions--see subsection (8).

Note 2:       Party has an extended meaning--see section 45AC.

Purpose condition

             (3)  The purpose condition is satisfied if the provision has the purpose of directly or indirectly:

                     (a)  preventing, restricting or limiting:

                              (i)  the production, or likely production, of goods by any or all of the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding; or

                             (ii)  the capacity, or likely capacity, of any or all of the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding to supply services; or

                            (iii)  the supply, or likely supply, of goods or services to persons or classes of persons by any or all of the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding; or

                            (iv)  the acquisition, or likely acquisition, of goods or services from persons or classes of persons by any or all of the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding; or

                     (b)  allocating between any or all of the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding:

                              (i)  the persons or classes of persons who have acquired, or who are likely to acquire, goods or services from any or all of the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding; or

                             (ii)  the persons or classes of persons who have supplied, or who are likely to supply, goods or services to any or all of the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding; or

                            (iii)  the geographical areas in which goods or services are supplied, or likely to be supplied, by any or all of the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding; or

                            (iv)  the geographical areas in which goods or services are acquired, or likely to be acquired, by any or all of the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding; or

                     (c)  ensuring that in the event of a request for bids in relation to the supply or acquisition of goods or services:

                              (i)  one or more parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding bid, but one or more other parties do not; or

                             (ii)  2 or more parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding bid, but at least 2 of them do so on the basis that one of those bids is more likely to be successful than the others; or

                            (iii)  2 or more parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding bid, but not all of those parties proceed with their bids until the suspension or finalisation of the request for bids process; or

                            (iv)  2 or more parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding bid and proceed with their bids, but at least 2 of them proceed with their bids on the basis that one of those bids is more likely to be successful than the others; or

                             (v)  2 or more parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding bid, but a material component of at least one of those bids is worked out in accordance with the contract, arrangement or understanding.

Note 1:       For example, subparagraph (3)(a)(iii) will not apply in relation to a roster for the supply of after-hours medical services if the roster does not prevent, restrict or limit the supply of services.

Note 2:       The purpose condition can be satisfied when a provision is considered with related provisions--see subsection (9).

Note 3:       Party has an extended meaning--see section 45AC.

Competition condition

             (4)  The competition condition is satisfied if at least 2 of the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding:

                     (a)  are or are likely to be; or

                     (b)  but for any contract, arrangement or understanding, would be or would be likely to be;

in competition with each other in relation to:

                     (c)  if paragraph (2)(c) or (3)(b) applies in relation to a supply, or likely supply, of goods or services--the supply of those goods or services in trade or commerce; or

                     (d)  if paragraph (2)(d) or (3)(b) applies in relation to an acquisition, or likely acquisition, of goods or services--the acquisition of those goods or services in trade or commerce; or

                     (e)  if paragraph (2)(e) or (f) applies in relation to a re-supply, or likely re-supply, of goods or services--the supply of those goods or services in trade or commerce to that re-supplier; or

                      (f)  if subparagraph (3)(a)(i) applies in relation to preventing, restricting or limiting the production, or likely production, of goods--the production of those goods in trade or commerce; or

                     (g)  if subparagraph (3)(a)(ii) applies in relation to preventing, restricting or limiting the capacity, or likely capacity, to supply services--the supply of those services in trade or commerce; or

                     (h)  if subparagraph (3)(a)(iii) applies in relation to preventing, restricting or limiting the supply, or likely supply, of goods or services--the supply of those goods or services in trade or commerce; or

                      (i)  if subparagraph (3)(a)(iv) applies in relation to preventing, restricting or limiting the acquisition, or likely acquisition, of goods or services--the acquisition of those goods or services in trade or commerce; or

                      (j)  if paragraph (3)(c) applies in relation to a supply of goods or services--the supply of those goods or services in trade or commerce; or

                     (k)  if paragraph (3)(c) applies in relation to an acquisition of goods or services--the acquisition of those goods or services in trade or commerce.

Note 1:       Party has an extended meaning--see section 45AC.

Note 2:       Trade or commerce is defined in section 4 to mean trade or commerce within Australia or between Australia and places outside Australia.

Immaterial whether identities of persons can be ascertained

             (5)  It is immaterial whether the identities of the persons referred to in paragraph (2)(e) or (f) or subparagraph (3)(a)(iii) or (iv) or (b)(i) or (ii) can be ascertained.

Recommending prices etc.

             (6)  For the purposes of this Division, a provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding is not taken:

                     (a)  to have the purpose mentioned in subsection (2); or

                     (b)  to have, or be likely to have, the effect mentioned in subsection (2);

by reason only that it recommends, or provides for the recommending of, a price, discount, allowance, rebate or credit.

Immaterial whether particular circumstances or particular conditions

             (7)  It is immaterial whether:

                     (a)  for the purposes of subsection (2), subparagraphs (3)(a)(iii) and (iv) and paragraphs (3)(b) and (c)--a supply or acquisition happens, or a likely supply or likely acquisition is to happen, in particular circumstances or on particular conditions; and

                     (b)  for the purposes of subparagraph (3)(a)(i)--the production happens, or the likely production is to happen, in particular circumstances or on particular conditions; and

                     (c)  for the purposes of subparagraph (3)(a)(ii)--the capacity exists, or the likely capacity is to exist, in particular circumstances or on particular conditions.

Considering related provisions--purpose/effect condition

             (8)  For the purposes of this Division, a provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding is taken to have the purpose, or to have or be likely to have the effect, mentioned in subsection (2) if the provision, when considered together with any or all of the following provisions:

                     (a)  the other provisions of the contract, arrangement or understanding;

                     (b)  the provisions of another contract, arrangement or understanding, if the parties to that other contract, arrangement or understanding consist of or include at least one of the parties to the first-mentioned contract, arrangement or understanding;

has that purpose, or has or is likely to have that effect.

Considering related provisions--purpose condition

             (9)  For the purposes of this Division, a provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding is taken to have the purpose mentioned in a paragraph of subsection (3) if the provision, when considered together with any or all of the following provisions:

                     (a)  the other provisions of the contract, arrangement or understanding;

                     (b)  the provisions of another contract, arrangement or understanding, if the parties to that other contract, arrangement or understanding consist of or include at least one of the parties to the first-mentioned contract, arrangement or understanding;

has that purpose.

Purpose/effect of a provision

           (10)  For the purposes of this Division, a provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding is not to be taken not to have the purpose, or not to have or to be likely to have the effect, mentioned in subsection (2) by reason only of:

                     (a)  the form of the provision; or

                     (b)  the form of the contract, arrangement or understanding; or

                     (c)  any description given to the provision, or to the contract, arrangement or understanding, by the parties.

Purpose of a provision

           (11)  For the purposes of this Division, a provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding is not to be taken not to have the purpose mentioned in a paragraph of subsection (3) by reason only of:

                     (a)  the form of the provision; or

                     (b)  the form of the contract, arrangement or understanding; or

                     (c)  any description given to the provision, or to the contract, arrangement or understanding, by the parties.

45AE   Meaning of expressions in other provisions of this Act

                   In determining the meaning of an expression used in a provision of this Act (other than this Division, subsection 6(2C), paragraph 76(1A)(aa) or subsection 93AB(1A)), this Division is to be disregarded.

Subdivision B -- Offences etc.

45AF   Making a contract etc. containing a cartel provision

Offence

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  the person makes a contract or arrangement, or arrives at an understanding; and

                     (b)  the contract, arrangement or understanding contains a cartel provision.

             (2)  The fault element for paragraph (1)(b) is knowledge or belief.

Penalty

             (3)  An offence against subsection (1) committed by a body corporate is punishable on conviction by a fine not exceeding the greater of the following:

                     (a)  $10,000,000;

                     (b)  if the court can determine the total value of the benefits that:

                              (i)  have been obtained by one or more persons; and

                             (ii)  are reasonably attributable to the commission of the offence;

                            3 times that total value;

                     (c)  if the court cannot determine the total value of those benefits--10% of the body corporate's annual turnover during the 12-month period ending at the end of the month in which the body corporate committed, or began committing, the offence.

             (4)  An offence against subsection (1) committed by a person other than a body corporate is punishable on conviction by a term of imprisonment not exceeding 10 years or a fine not exceeding 2,000 penalty units, or both.

Indictable offence

             (5)  An offence against subsection (1) is an indictable offence.

45AG   Giving effect to a cartel provision

Offence

             (1)  A person commits an offence if:

                     (a)  a contract, arrangement or understanding contains a cartel provision; and

                     (b)  the person gives effect to the cartel provision.

             (2)  The fault element for paragraph (1)(a) is knowledge or belief.

Penalty

             (3)  An offence against subsection (1) committed by a body corporate is punishable on conviction by a fine not exceeding the greater of the following:

                     (a)  $10,000,000;

                     (b)  if the court can determine the total value of the benefits that:

                              (i)  have been obtained by one or more persons; and

                             (ii)  are reasonably attributable to the commission of the offence;

                            3 times that total value;

                     (c)  if the court cannot determine the total value of those benefits--10% of the body corporate's annual turnover during the 12-month period ending at the end of the month in which the body corporate committed, or began committing, the offence.

             (4)  An offence against subsection (1) committed by a person other than a body corporate is punishable on conviction by a term of imprisonment not exceeding 10 years or a fine not exceeding 2,000 penalty units, or both.

Pre-commencement contracts etc.

             (5)  Paragraph (1)(a) applies to contracts or arrangements made, or understandings arrived at, before, at or after the commencement of this section.

Indictable offence

             (6)  An offence against subsection (1) is an indictable offence.

45AH   Determining guilt

             (1)  A person may be found guilty of an offence against section 45AF or 45AG even if:

                     (a)  each other party to the contract, arrangement or understanding is a person who is not criminally responsible; or

                     (b)  subject to subsection (2), all other parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding have been acquitted of the offence.

Note:          Party has an extended meaning--see section 45AC.

             (2)  A person cannot be found guilty of an offence against section 45AF or 45AG if:

                     (a)  all other parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding have been acquitted of such an offence; and

                     (b)  a finding of guilt would be inconsistent with their acquittal.

45AI   Court may make related civil orders

                   If a prosecution against a person for an offence against section 45AF or 45AG is being, or has been, heard by a court, the court may:

                     (a)  grant an injunction under section 80 against the person in relation to:

                              (i)  the conduct that constitutes, or is alleged to constitute, the offence; or

                             (ii)  other conduct of that kind; or

                     (b)  make an order under section 86C, 86D, 86E or 87 in relation to the offence.

Subdivision C -- Civil penalty provisions

45AJ   Making a contract etc. containing a cartel provision

                   A person contravenes this section if:

                     (a)  the person makes a contract or arrangement, or arrives at an understanding; and

                     (b)  the contract, arrangement or understanding contains a cartel provision.

Note:          For enforcement, see Part VI.

45AK   Giving effect to a cartel provision

             (1)  A person contravenes this section if:

                     (a)  a contract, arrangement or understanding contains a cartel provision; and

                     (b)  the person gives effect to the cartel provision.

Note:          For enforcement, see Part VI.

             (2)  Paragraph (1)(a) applies to contracts or arrangements made, or understandings arrived at, before, at or after the commencement of this section.

Subdivision D -- Exceptions

45AL   Conduct notified

             (1)  Sections 45AF, 45AG, 45AJ and 45AK do not apply to a person in relation to a contract, arrangement or understanding containing a cartel provision, in so far as:

                     (a)  the cartel provision:

                              (i)  has the purpose, or has or is likely to have the effect, mentioned in subsection 45AD(2); or

                             (ii)  has the purpose mentioned in a paragraph of subsection 45AD(3) other than paragraph (c); and

                     (b)  the person has given the Commission a collective bargaining notice under subsection 93AB(1A) setting out particulars of the contract, arrangement or understanding; and

                     (c)  the notice is in force under section 93AD.

             (2)  A person who wishes to rely on subsection (1) bears an evidential burden in relation to that matter.

45AM   Cartel provision subject to grant of authorisation

             (1)  Sections 45AF and 45AJ do not apply in relation to the making of a contract that contains a cartel provision if:

                     (a)  the contract is subject to a condition that the provision will not come into force unless and until the person is granted an authorisation to give effect to the provision; and

                     (b)  the person applies for the grant of such an authorisation within 14 days after the contract is made.

             (2)  A person who wishes to rely on subsection (1) bears an evidential burden in relation to that matter.

45AN   Contracts, arrangements or understandings between related bodies corporate

             (1)  Sections 45AF, 45AG, 45AJ and 45AK do not apply in relation to a contract, arrangement or understanding if the only parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding are bodies corporate that are related to each other.

             (2)  A person who wishes to rely on subsection (1) bears an evidential burden in relation to that matter.

45AO   Joint ventures--prosecution

             (1)  Sections 45AF and 45AG do not apply in relation to a contract, arrangement or understanding containing a cartel provision if the defendant proves that:

                     (a)  the cartel provision is:

                              (i)  for the purposes of a joint venture; and

                             (ii)  reasonably necessary for undertaking the joint venture; and

                     (b)  the joint venture is for any one or more of the following:

                              (i)  production of goods;

                             (ii)  supply of goods or services;

                            (iii)  acquisition of goods or services; and

                     (c)  the joint venture is not carried on for the purpose of substantially lessening competition; and

                     (d)  in a case where subparagraph 4J(a)(i) applies to the joint venture--the joint venture is carried on jointly by the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding; and

                     (e)  in a case where subparagraph 4J(a)(ii) applies to the joint venture--the joint venture is carried on by a body corporate formed by the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding for the purpose of enabling those parties to carry on the activity mentioned in paragraph (b) jointly by means of:

                              (i)  their joint control; or

                             (ii)  their ownership of shares in the capital;

                            of that body corporate.

Note:          For example, if a joint venture formed for the purpose of research and development provides the results of its research and development to participants in the joint venture, it may be a joint venture for the supply of services.

             (2)  A defendant who wishes to rely on subsection (1) must prove that matter on the balance of probabilities.

45AP   Joint ventures--civil penalty proceedings

             (1)  Sections 45AJ and 45AK do not apply in relation to a contract, arrangement or understanding containing a cartel provision if the defendant proves that:

                     (a)  the cartel provision is:

                              (i)  for the purposes of a joint venture; and

                             (ii)  reasonably necessary for undertaking the joint venture; and

                     (b)  the joint venture is for any one or more of the following:

                              (i)  production of goods;

                             (ii)  supply of goods or services;

                            (iii)  acquisition of goods or services; and

                     (c)  the joint venture is not carried on for the purpose of substantially lessening competition; and

                     (d)  in a case where subparagraph 4J(a)(i) applies to the joint venture--the joint venture is carried on jointly by the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding; and

                     (e)  in a case where subparagraph 4J(a)(ii) applies to the joint venture--the joint venture is carried on by a body corporate formed by the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding for the purpose of enabling those parties to carry on the activity mentioned in paragraph (b) jointly by means of:

                              (i)  their joint control; or

                             (ii)  their ownership of shares in the capital;

                            of that body corporate.

Note:          For example, if a joint venture formed for the purpose of research and development provides the results of its research and development to participants in the joint venture, it may be a joint venture for the supply of services.

             (2)  A defendant who wishes to rely on subsection (1) must prove that matter on the balance of probabilities.

45AQ   Resale price maintenance

             (1)  Sections 45AF, 45AG, 45AJ and 45AK do not apply in relation to a contract, arrangement or understanding containing a cartel provision, in so far as the cartel provision relates to:

                     (a)  conduct that contravenes section 48; or

                     (b)  conduct that would contravene section 48 but for the operation of section 88; or

                     (c)  conduct that would contravene section 48 if this Act defined the acts constituting the practice of resale price maintenance by reference to the maximum price at which goods or services are to be sold or supplied or are to be advertised, displayed or offered for sale or supply.

             (2)  A person who wishes to rely on subsection (1) bears an evidential burden in relation to that matter.

45AR   Exclusive dealing

             (1)  Sections 45AF and 45AJ do not apply in relation to the making of a contract, arrangement or understanding that contains a cartel provision, in so far as giving effect to the cartel provision would, or would but for the operation of subsection 47(10) or section 88 or 93, constitute a contravention of section 47.

             (2)  Sections 45AG and 45AK do not apply in relation to the giving effect to a cartel provision by way of:

                     (a)  engaging in conduct that contravenes, or would but for the operation of subsection 47(10) or section 88 or 93 contravene, section 47; or

                     (b)  doing an act by reason of a breach or threatened breach of a condition referred to in subsection 47(2), (4), (6) or (8), being an act done by a person at a time when:

                              (i)  an authorisation under section 88 is in force in relation to conduct engaged in by that person on that condition; or

                             (ii)  by reason of subsection 93(7), conduct engaged in by that person on that condition is not to be taken to have the effect of substantially lessening competition within the meaning of section 47; or

                            (iii)  a notice under subsection 93(1) is in force in relation to conduct engaged in by that person on that condition.

             (3)  A person who wishes to rely on subsection (1) or (2) bears an evidential burden in relation to that matter.

45AS   Dual listed company arrangement

             (1)  Sections 45AF and 45AJ do not apply in relation to the making of a contract, arrangement or understanding that contains a cartel provision, in so far as:

                     (a)  the contract, arrangement or understanding is a dual listed company arrangement; and

                     (b)  the making of the contract, arrangement or understanding would, or would apart from section 88, contravene section 49.

             (2)  Sections 45AG and 45AK do not apply in relation to the giving effect to a cartel provision, in so far as:

                     (a)  the cartel provision is a provision of a dual listed company arrangement; and

                     (b)  the giving effect to the cartel provision would, or would apart from section 88, contravene section 49.

             (3)  A person who wishes to rely on subsection (1) or (2) bears an evidential burden in relation to that matter.

45AT   Acquisition of shares or assets

             (1)  Sections 45AF, 45AG, 45AJ and 45AK do not apply in relation to a contract, arrangement or understanding containing a cartel provision, in so far as the cartel provision provides directly or indirectly for the acquisition of:

                     (a)  any shares in the capital of a body corporate; or

                     (b)  any assets of a person.

             (2)  A person who wishes to rely on subsection (1) bears an evidential burden in relation to that matter.

45AU   Collective acquisition of goods or services by the parties to a contract, arrangement or understanding

             (1)  Sections 45AF, 45AG, 45AJ and 45AK do not apply in relation to a contract, arrangement or understanding containing a cartel provision, in so far as:

                     (a)  the cartel provision has the purpose, or has or is likely to have the effect, mentioned in subsection 45AD(2); and

                     (b)  either:

                              (i)  the cartel provision relates to the price for goods or services to be collectively acquired, whether directly or indirectly, by the parties to the contract, arrangement or understanding; or

                             (ii)  the cartel provision is for the joint advertising of the price for the re-supply of goods or services so acquired.

             (2)  A person who wishes to rely on subsection (1) bears an evidential burden in relation to that matter.

Division 2 -- Other provisions

45   Contracts, arrangements or understandings that restrict dealings or affect competition

             (1)  A person must not:

                     (a)  make a contract or arrangement, or arrive at an understanding, if a provision of the proposed contract, arrangement or understanding has the purpose, or would have or be likely to have the effect, of substantially lessening competition; or

                     (b)  give effect to a provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding, if that provision has the purpose, or has or is likely to have the effect, of substantially lessening competition; or

                     (c)  engage with one or more other persons in a concerted practice that has the purpose, or has or is likely to have the effect, of substantially lessening competition.

             (2)  Paragraph (1)(b) applies in relation to contracts or arrangements made, or understandings arrived at, before or after the commencement of this section.

             (3)  For the purposes of this section, competition means:

                     (a)  in relation to a provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding or of a proposed contract, arrangement or understanding--competition in any market in which:

                              (i)  a person who is a party to the contract, arrangement or understanding, or would be a party to the proposed contract, arrangement or understanding; or

                             (ii)  any body corporate related to such a person;

                            supplies or acquires, or is likely to supply or acquire, goods or services or would, but for the provision, supply or acquire, or be likely to supply or acquire, goods or services; or

                     (b)  in relation to a concerted practice--competition in any market in which:

                              (i)  a person who is a party to the practice; or

                             (ii)  any body corporate related to such a person;

                            supplies or acquires, or is likely to supply or acquire, goods or services or would, but for the practice, supply or acquire, or be likely to supply or acquire, goods or services.

             (4)  For the purposes of the application of this section in relation to a particular person, a provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding or of a proposed contract, arrangement or understanding shall be deemed to have or to be likely to have the effect of substantially lessening competition if that provision and any one or more of the following provisions, namely:

                     (a)  the other provisions of that contract, arrangement or understanding or proposed contract, arrangement or understanding; and

                     (b)  the provisions of any other contract, arrangement or understanding or proposed contract, arrangement or understanding to which the person or a body corporate related to the person is or would be a party;

together have or are likely to have that effect.

             (5)  This section does not apply to or in relation to a provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding or of a proposed contract, arrangement or understanding, or to or in relation to a concerted practice, in so far as the provision or practice relates to:

                     (a)  conduct that contravenes section 48; or

                     (b)  conduct that would contravene section 48 if subsection 48(2) did not apply; or

                     (c)  conduct that would contravene section 48 if it were not authorised under section 88; or

                     (d)  conduct that would contravene section 48 if this Act defined the acts constituting the practice of resale price maintenance by reference to the maximum price at which goods or services are to be sold or supplied or are to be advertised, displayed or offered for sale or supply.

          (5A)  The making of a contract, arrangement or understanding does not constitute a contravention of this section because the contract, arrangement or understanding contains a provision the giving effect to which would, or would apart from subsection 47(10) or section 88 or 93, constitute a contravention of section 47.

             (6)  This section does not apply to or in relation to the giving effect to a provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding, or to or in relation to engaging in a concerted practice, by way of:

                     (a)  engaging in conduct that contravenes, or would but for the operation of subsection 47(10) or section 88 or 93 contravene, section 47; or

                     (b)  doing an act by reason of a breach or threatened breach of a condition referred to in subsection 47(2), (4), (6) or (8), being an act done by a person at a time when:

                              (i)  an authorization under section 88 is in force in relation to conduct engaged in by that person on that condition; or

                             (ii)  by reason of subsection 93(7) conduct engaged in by that person on that condition is not to be taken to have the effect of substantially lessening competition within the meaning of section 47; or

                            (iii)  a notice under subsection 93(1) is in force in relation to conduct engaged in by that person on that condition.

          (6A)  The following conduct:

                     (a)  the making of a dual listed company arrangement;

                     (b)  the giving effect to a provision of a dual listed company arrangement;

does not contravene this section if the conduct would, or would apart from section 88, contravene section 49.

             (7)  This section does not apply to or in relation to:

                     (a)  a contract, arrangement or understanding to the extent that the contract, arrangement or understanding directly or indirectly provides for; or

                     (b)  a proposed contract, arrangement or understanding to the extent that the proposed contract, arrangement or understanding would directly or indirectly provide for; or

                     (c)  a concerted practice to the extent that the practice directly or indirectly involves;

the acquisition of any shares in the capital of a body corporate or any assets of a person.

             (8)  This section does not apply to or in relation to:

                     (a)  a contract, arrangement or understanding, or

                     (b)  a proposed contract, arrangement or understanding; or

                     (c)  a concerted practice;

the only parties to which are or would be bodies corporate that are related to each other.

       (8AA)  This section does not apply to or in relation to a concerted practice if the only persons engaging in it are or would be:

                     (a)  the Crown in right of the Commonwealth and one or more authorities of the Commonwealth; or

                     (b)  the Crown in right of a State or Territory and one or more authorities of that State or Territory.

          (8A)  Subsection (1) does not apply to a person engaging in conduct described in that subsection if:

                     (a)  the person has given the Commission a collective bargaining notice under subsection 93AB(1) describing the conduct; and

                     (b)  the notice is in force under section 93AD.

             (9)  The making by a person of a contract that contains a provision in relation to which the person intends to apply for an authorisation under section 88 is not a contravention of subsection (1) of this section if:

                     (a)  the contract is subject to a condition that the provision will not come into force unless and until the person is granted an authorization to give effect to the provision; and

                     (b)  the person applies for the grant of such an authorization within 14 days after the contract is made;

but nothing in this subsection prevents the giving effect by a person to such a provision from constituting a contravention of subsection (1).

45D   Secondary boycotts for the purpose of causing substantial loss or damage

             (1)  A person must not, in concert with a second person, engage in conduct:

                     (a)  that hinders or prevents:

                              (i)  a third person supplying goods or services to a fourth person (who is not an employer of the first person or the second person); or

                             (ii)  a third person acquiring goods or services from a fourth person (who is not an employer of the first person or the second person); and

                     (b)  that is engaged in for the purpose, and would have or be likely to have the effect, of causing substantial loss or damage to the business of the fourth person.

Note 1:       Conduct that would otherwise contravene this section can be authorised under section 88.

Note 2:       This section also has effect subject to section 45DD, which deals with permitted boycotts.

             (2)  A person is taken to engage in conduct for a purpose mentioned in subsection (1) if the person engages in the conduct for purposes that include that purpose.

45DA   Secondary boycotts for the purpose of causing substantial lessening of competition

             (1)  A person must not, in concert with a second person, engage in conduct:

                     (a)  that hinders or prevents:

                              (i)  a third person supplying goods or services to a fourth person (who is not an employer of the first person or the second person); or

                             (ii)  a third person acquiring goods or services from a fourth person (who is not an employer of the first person or the second person); and

                     (b)  that is engaged in for the purpose, and would have or be likely to have the effect, of causing a substantial lessening of competition in any market in which the fourth person supplies or acquires goods or services.

Note 1:       Conduct that would otherwise contravene this section can be authorised under section 88.

Note 2:       This section also has effect subject to section 45DD, which deals with permitted boycotts.

             (2)  A person is taken to engage in conduct for a purpose mentioned in subsection (1) if the person engages in the conduct for purposes that include that purpose.

Note:          This version of Part IV does not contain an equivalent of section 45DB of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010 .

45DC   Involvement and liability of employee organisations

Certain organisations taken to be acting in concert

             (1)  If 2 or more persons (the participants ), each of whom is a member or officer of the same organisation of employees, engage in conduct in concert with one another, whether or not the conduct is also engaged in in concert with another person, then, unless the organisation proves otherwise, the organisation is taken for the purposes of sections 45D and 45DA:

                     (a)  to engage in that conduct in concert with the participants; and

                     (b)  to have engaged in that conduct for the purposes for which the participants engaged in it.

Consequences of organisation contravening subsection 45D(1) or 45DA(1)

             (2)  The consequences of an organisation of employees engaging, or being taken by subsection (1) to engage, in conduct in concert with any of its members or officers in contravention of subsection 45D(1) or 45DA(1) are as set out in subsections (3), (4) and (5).

Loss or damage taken to have been caused by organisation's conduct

             (3)  Any loss or damage suffered by a person as a result of the conduct is taken, for the purposes of this Act, to have been caused by the conduct of the organisation.

Taking proceedings if organisation is a body corporate

             (4)  If the organisation is a body corporate, no action under section 82 to recover the amount of the loss or damage may be brought against any of the members or officers of the organisation in respect of the conduct.

Taking proceedings if organisation is not a body corporate

             (5)  If the organisation is not a body corporate:

                     (a)  a proceeding in respect of the conduct may be brought under section 77, 80 or 82 against an officer of the organisation as a representative of the organisation's members and the proceeding is taken to be a proceeding against all the persons who were members of the organisation at the time when the conduct was engaged in; and

                     (b)  subsection 76(2) does not prevent an order being made in a proceeding mentioned in paragraph (a) that was brought under section 77; and

                     (c)  the maximum pecuniary penalty that may be imposed in a proceeding mentioned in paragraph (a) that was brought under section 77 is the penalty applicable under section 76 in relation to a body corporate; and

                     (d)  except as provided by paragraph (a), a proceeding in respect of the conduct must not be brought under section 77 or 82 against any of the members or officers of the organisation; and

                     (e)  for the purpose of enforcing any judgment or order given or made in a proceeding mentioned in paragraph (a) that was brought under section 77 or 82, process may be issued and executed against the following property or interests as if the organisation were a body corporate and the absolute owner of the property or interests:

                              (i)  any property of the organisation or of any branch or part of the organisation, whether vested in trustees or however otherwise held;

                             (ii)  any property in which the organisation or any branch or part of the organisation has a beneficial interest, whether vested in trustees or however otherwise held;

                            (iii)  any property in which any members of the organisation or of a branch or part of the organisation have a beneficial interest in their capacity as members, whether vested in trustees or however otherwise held; and

                      (f)  if paragraph (e) applies, no process is to be issued or executed against any property of members or officers of the organisation or of a branch or part of the organisation except as provided in that paragraph.

45DD   Situations in which boycotts permitted

Dominant purpose of conduct relates to employment matters--conduct by a person

             (1)  A person does not contravene, and is not involved in a contravention of, subsection 45D(1) or 45DA(1) by engaging in conduct if the dominant purpose for which the conduct is engaged in is substantially related to the remuneration, conditions of employment, hours of work or working conditions of that person or of another person employed by an employer of that person.

Dominant purpose of conduct relates to employment matters--conduct by employee organisation and employees

             (2)  If:

                     (a)  an employee, or 2 or more employees who are employed by the same employer, engage in conduct in concert with another person who is, or with other persons each of whom is:

                              (i)  an organisation of employees; or

                             (ii)  an officer of an organisation of employees; and

                     (b)  the conduct is only engaged in by the persons covered by paragraph (a); and

                     (c)  the dominant purpose for which the conduct is engaged in is substantially related to the remuneration, conditions of employment, hours of work or working conditions of the employee, or any of the employees, covered by paragraph (a);

the persons covered by paragraph (a) do not contravene, and are not involved in a contravention of, subsection 45D(1) or 45DA(1) by engaging in the conduct.

Dominant purpose of conduct relates to environmental protection or consumer protection

             (3)  A person does not contravene, and is not involved in a contravention of, subsection 45D(1) or 45DA(1) by engaging in conduct if:

                     (a)  the dominant purpose for which the conduct is engaged in is substantially related to environmental protection or consumer protection; and

                     (b)  engaging in the conduct is not industrial action.

Note 1:       If an environmental organisation or a consumer organisation is a body corporate:

(a)    it is a "person" who may be subject to the prohibitions in subsections 45D(1) and 45DA(1) and who may also be covered by this exemption; and

(b)    each of its members is a "person" who may be subject to the prohibitions in subsections 45D(1) and 45DA(1) and who may also be covered by this exemption.

Note 2:       If an environmental organisation or a consumer organisation is not a body corporate:

(a)    it is not a "person" and is therefore not subject to the prohibitions in subsections 45D(1) and 45DA(1) (consequently, this exemption does not cover the organisation as such); but

(b)    each of its members is a "person" who may be subject to the prohibitions in subsections 45D(1) and 45DA(1) and who may also be covered by this exemption.

Meaning of industrial action --basic definition

             (4)  In subsection (3), industrial action means:

                     (a)  the performance of work in a manner different from that in which it is customarily performed, or the adoption of a practice in relation to work, the result of which is a restriction or limitation on, or a delay in, the performance of the work, where:

                              (i)  the terms and conditions of the work are prescribed, wholly or partly, by a workplace instrument or an order of an industrial body; or

                             (ii)  the work is performed, or the practice is adopted, in connection with an industrial dispute; or

                     (b)  a ban, limitation or restriction on the performance of work, or on acceptance of or offering for work, in accordance with the terms and conditions prescribed by a workplace instrument or by an order of an industrial body; or

                     (c)  a ban, limitation or restriction on the performance of work, or on acceptance of or offering for work, that is adopted in connection with an industrial dispute; or

                     (d)  a failure or refusal by persons to attend for work or a failure or refusal to perform any work at all by persons who attend for work.

For this purpose, industrial body and workplace instrument have the same meanings as in the Fair Work Act 2009 .

Meaning of industrial action --further clarification

             (5)  For the purposes of subsection (3):

                     (a)  conduct is capable of constituting industrial action even if the conduct relates to part only of the duties that persons are required to perform in the course of their employment; and

                     (b)  a reference to industrial action includes a reference to a course of conduct consisting of a series of industrial actions.

Subsections (1), (2) and (3) do not protect people not covered by them

             (6)  In applying subsection 45D(1) or 45DA(1) to a person who is not covered by subsection (1), (2) or (3) in respect of certain conduct, disregard the fact that other persons may be covered by one of those subsections in respect of the same conduct.

Note:          Section 415 of the Fair Work Act 2009 limits the right to bring actions under the Competition Code in respect of industrial action that is protected action for the purposes of that section.

45E   Prohibition of contracts, arrangements or understandings affecting the supply or acquisition of goods or services

Situations to which section applies

             (1)  This section applies in the following situations:

                     (a)  a supply situation --in this situation, a person (the first person ) has been accustomed, or is under an obligation, to supply goods or services to another person (the second person ); or

                     (b)  an acquisition situation --in this situation, a person (the first person ) has been accustomed, or is under an obligation, to acquire goods or services from another person (the second person ).

Note :         For the meanings of accustomed to supply and accustomed to acquire , see subsections (5) and (7).

Prohibition in a supply situation

             (2)  In a supply situation, the first person must not make a contract or arrangement, or arrive at an understanding, with an organisation of employees, an officer of such an organisation or a person acting for and on behalf of such an officer or organisation, if the proposed contract, arrangement or understanding contains a provision included for the purpose, or for purposes including the purpose, of:

                     (a)  preventing or hindering the first person from supplying or continuing to supply such goods or services to the second person; or

                     (b)  preventing or hindering the first person from supplying or continuing to supply such goods or services to the second person, except subject to a condition:

                              (i)  that is not a condition to which the supply of such goods or services by the first person to the second person has previously been subject because of a provision in a contract between those persons; and

                             (ii)  that is about the persons to whom, the manner in which or the terms on which the second person may supply any goods or services.

Prohibition in an acquisition situation

             (3)  In an acquisition situation, the first person must not make a contract or arrangement, or arrive at an understanding, with an organisation of employees, an officer of such an organisation or a person acting for and on behalf of such an officer or organisation, if the proposed contract, arrangement or understanding contains a provision included for the purpose, or for purposes including the purpose, of:

                     (a)  preventing or hindering the first person from acquiring or continuing to acquire such goods or services from the second person; or

                     (b)  preventing or hindering the first person from acquiring or continuing to acquire such goods or services from the second person, except subject to a condition:

                              (i)  that is not a condition to which the acquisition of such goods or services by the first person from the second person has previously been subject because of a provision in a contract between those persons; and

                             (ii)  that is about the persons to whom, the manner in which or the terms on which the second person may supply any goods or services.

No contravention if second person gives written consent to written contract etc.

             (4)  Subsections (2) and (3) do not apply to a contract, arrangement or understanding if it is in writing and was made or arrived at with the written consent of the second person.

Meaning of accustomed to supply

             (5)  In this section, a reference to a person who has been accustomed to supply goods or services to a second person includes (subject to subsection (6)):

                     (a)  a regular supplier of such goods or services to the second person; or

                     (b)  the latest supplier of such goods or services to the second person; or

                     (c)  a person who, at any time during the immediately preceding 3 months, supplied such goods or services to the second person.

Exception to subsection (5)

             (6)  If:

                     (a)  goods or services have been supplied by a person to a second person under a contract between them that required the first person to supply such goods or services over a period; and

                     (b)  the period has ended; and

                     (c)  after the end of the period, the second person has been supplied with such goods or services by another person and has not also been supplied with such goods or services by the first person;

then, for the purposes of the application of this section in relation to anything done after the second person has been supplied with goods or services as mentioned in paragraph (c), the first person is not to be taken to be a person who has been accustomed to supply such goods or services to the second person.

Meaning of accustomed to acquire

             (7)  In this section, a reference to a person who has been accustomed to acquire goods or services from a second person includes (subject to subsection (8)):

                     (a)  a regular acquirer of such goods or services from the second person; or

                     (b)  a person who, when last acquiring such goods or services, acquired them from the second person; or

                     (c)  a person who, at any time during the immediately preceding 3 months, acquired such goods or services from the second person.

Exception to subsection (7)

             (8)  If:

                     (a)  goods or services have been acquired by a person from a second person under a contract between them that required the first person to acquire such goods or services over a period; and

                     (b)  the period has ended; and

                     (c)  after the end of the period, the second person has refused to supply such goods or services to the first person;

then, for the purposes of the application of this section in relation to anything done after the second person has refused to supply goods or services as mentioned in paragraph (c), the first person is not to be taken to be a person who has been accustomed to acquire such goods or services from the second person.

Note:          Conduct that would otherwise contravene this section can be authorised under section 88.

45EA   Provisions contravening section 45E not to be given effect

                   A person must not give effect to a provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding if, because of the provision, the making of the contract or arrangement, or the arriving at the understanding, by the person:

                     (a)  contravened subsection 45E(2) or (3); or

                     (b)  would have contravened subsection 45E(2) or (3) if:

                              (i)  section 45E had been in force when the contract or arrangement was made, or the understanding was arrived at; and

                             (ii)  the words "is in writing and" and "written" were not included in subsection 45E(4).

Note:          Conduct that would otherwise contravene this section can be authorised under section 88.

45EB   Sections 45D to 45EA do not affect operation of other provisions of Part

                   Nothing in section 45D, 45DA, 45DC, 45DD, 45E or 45EA affects the operation of any other provision of this Part.

46   Misuse of market power

             (1)  A person who has a substantial degree of power in a market must not engage in conduct that has the purpose, or has or is likely to have the effect, of substantially lessening competition in:

                     (a)  that market; or

                     (b)  any other market in which that person, or a body corporate that is related to that person:

                              (i)  supplies goods or services, or is likely to supply goods or services; or

                             (ii)  supplies goods or services, or is likely to supply goods or services, indirectly through one or more other persons; or

                     (c)  any other market in which that person, or a body corporate that is related to that person:

                              (i)  acquires goods or services, or is likely to acquire goods or services; or

                             (ii)  acquires goods or services, or is likely to acquire goods or services, indirectly through one or more other persons.

             (3)  A person (the first person ) is taken for the purposes of this section to have a substantial degree of power in a market if:

                     (a)  a body corporate that is related to the first person has, or 2 or more bodies corporate each of which is related to the first person together have, a substantial degree of power in that market; or

                     (b)  the first person and a body corporate that is, or the first person and 2 or more bodies corporate each of which is, related to the first person, together have a substantial degree of power in that market.

             (4)  In determining for the purposes of this section the degree of power that a person (the first person ) or bodies corporate have in a market:

                     (a)  regard must be had to the extent to which the conduct of the first person or of any of those bodies corporate in that market is constrained by the conduct of:

                              (i)  competitors, or potential competitors, of the first person or of any of those bodies corporate in that market; or

                             (ii)  persons to whom or from whom the first person or any of those bodies corporate supplies or acquires goods or services in that market; and

                     (b)  regard may be had to the power the first person or bodies corporate have in that market that results from:

                              (i)  any contracts, arrangements or understandings that the first person or bodies corporate have with another party or other parties; or

                             (ii)  any proposed contracts, arrangements or understandings that the first person or bodies corporate may have with another party or other parties.

             (5)  For the purposes of this section, a person may have a substantial degree of power in a market even though:

                     (a)  the person does not substantially control that market; or

                     (b)  the person does not have absolute freedom from constraint by the conduct of:

                              (i)  competitors, or potential competitors, of the person in that market; or

                             (ii)  persons to whom or from whom the person supplies or acquires goods or services in that market.

             (6)  Subsections (4) and (5) do not limit the matters to which regard may be had in determining, for the purposes of this section, the degree of power that a person or bodies corporate have in a market.

             (7)  To avoid doubt, for the purposes of this section, more than one person may have a substantial degree of power in a market.

             (8)  In this section:

                     (a)  a reference to power is a reference to market power; and

                     (b)  a reference to a market is a reference to a market for goods or services; and

                     (c)  a reference to power in relation to, or to conduct in, a market is a reference to power, or to conduct, in that market either as a supplier or as an acquirer of goods or services in that market.

47   Exclusive dealing

             (1)  Subject to this section, a person shall not, in trade or commerce, engage in the practice of exclusive dealing.

             (2)  A person (the first person ) engages in the practice of exclusive dealing if the first person:

                     (a)  supplies, or offers to supply, goods or services;

                     (b)  supplies, or offers to supply, goods or services at a particular price; or

                     (c)  gives or allows, or offers to give or allow, a discount, allowance, rebate or credit in relation to the supply or proposed supply of goods or services by the first person;

on the condition that the person (the second person ) to whom the first person supplies, or offers or proposes to supply, the goods or services or, if the second person is a body corporate, a body corporate related to that body corporate:

                     (d)  will not, or will not except to a limited extent, acquire goods or services, or goods or services of a particular kind or description, directly or indirectly from a competitor of the first person or from a competitor of a body corporate related to the first person;

                     (e)  will not, or will not except to a limited extent, re-supply goods or services, or goods or services of a particular kind or description, acquired directly or indirectly from a competitor of the first person or from a competitor of a body corporate related to the first person; or

                      (f)  in the case where the first person supplies or would supply goods or services, will not re-supply the goods or services to any person, or will not, or will not except to a limited extent, re-supply the goods or services:

                              (i)  to particular persons or classes of persons or to persons other than particular persons or classes of persons; or

                             (ii)  in particular places or classes of places or in places other than particular places or classes of places.

             (3)  A person (the first person ) also engages in the practice of exclusive dealing if the first person refuses:

                     (a)  to supply goods or services to a second person;

                     (b)  to supply goods or services to a second person at a particular price; or

                     (c)  to give or allow a discount, allowance, rebate or credit in relation to the supply or proposed supply of goods or services to a second person;

for the reason that the second person or, if the second person is a body corporate, a body corporate related to that body corporate:

                     (d)  has acquired, or has not agreed not to acquire, goods or services, or goods or services of a particular kind or description, directly or indirectly from a competitor of the first person or from a competitor of a body corporate related to the first person;

                     (e)  has re-supplied, or has not agreed not to re-supply, goods or services, or goods or services of a particular kind or description, acquired directly or indirectly from a competitor of the first person or from a competitor of a body corporate related to the first person; or

                      (f)  has re-supplied, or has not agreed not to re-supply, goods or services, or goods or services of a particular kind or description, acquired from the first person to any person, or has re-supplied, or has not agreed not to re-supply, goods or services, or goods or services of a particular kind or description, acquired from the first person:

                              (i)  to particular persons or classes of persons or to persons other than particular persons or classes of persons; or

                             (ii)  in particular places or classes of places or in places other than particular places or classes of places.

             (4)  A person (the first person ) also engages in the practice of exclusive dealing if the first person:

                     (a)  acquires, or offers to acquire, goods or services; or

                     (b)  acquires, or offers to acquire, goods or services at a particular price;

on the condition that the person (the second person ) from whom the first person acquires or offers to acquire the goods or services or, if the second person is a body corporate, a body corporate related to that body corporate will not supply goods or services, or goods or services of a particular kind or description, to any person, or will not, or will not except to a limited extent, supply goods or services, or goods or services of a particular kind or description:

                     (c)  to particular persons or classes of persons or to persons other than particular persons or classes of persons; or

                     (d)  in particular places or classes of places or in places other than particular places or classes of places.

             (5)  A person (the first person ) also engages in the practice of exclusive dealing if the first person refuses:

                     (a)  to acquire goods or services from a second person; or

                     (b)  to acquire goods or services at a particular price from a second person;

for the reason that the second person or, if the second person is a body corporate, a body corporate related to that body corporate has supplied, or has not agreed not to supply, goods or services, or goods or services of a particular kind or description:

                     (c)  to particular persons or classes of persons or to persons other than particular persons or classes of persons; or

                     (d)  in particular places or classes of places or in places other than particular places or classes of places.

             (6)  A person (the first person ) also engages in the practice of exclusive dealing if the first person:

                     (a)  supplies, or offers to supply, goods or services;

                     (b)  supplies, or offers to supply, goods or services at a particular price; or

                     (c)  gives or allows, or offers to give or allow, a discount, allowance, rebate or credit in relation to the supply or proposed supply of goods or services by the first person;

on the condition that the person (the second person ) to whom the first person supplies or offers or proposes to supply the goods or services or, if the second person is a body corporate, a body corporate related to that body corporate will acquire goods or services of a particular kind or description directly or indirectly from another person not being a body corporate related to the first person.

             (7)  A person (the first person ) also engages in the practice of exclusive dealing if the first person refuses:

                     (a)  to supply goods or services to a second person;

                     (b)  to supply goods or services at a particular price to a second person; or

                     (c)  to give or allow a discount, allowance, rebate or credit in relation to the supply of goods or services to a second person;

for the reason that the second person or, if the second person is a body corporate, a body corporate related to that body corporate has not acquired, or has not agreed to acquire, goods or services of a particular kind or description directly or indirectly from another person not being a body corporate related to the first person.

             (8)  A person (the first person ) also engages in the practice of exclusive dealing if the first person grants or renews, or makes it known that the first person will not exercise a power or right to terminate, a lease of, or a licence in respect of, land or a building or part of a building on the condition that another party to the lease or licence or, if that other party is a body corporate, a body corporate related to that body corporate:

                     (a)  will not, or will not except to a limited extent:

                              (i)  acquire goods or services, or goods or services of a particular kind or description, directly or indirectly from a competitor of the first person or from a competitor of a body corporate related to the first person; or

                             (ii)  re-supply goods or services, or goods or services of a particular kind or description, acquired directly or indirectly from a competitor of the first person or from a competitor of a body corporate related to the first person;

                     (b)  will not supply goods or services, or goods or services of a particular kind or description, to any person, or will not, or will not except to a limited extent, supply goods or services, or goods or services of a particular kind or description:

                              (i)  to particular persons or classes of persons or to persons other than particular persons or classes of persons; or

                             (ii)  in particular places or classes of places or in places other than particular places or classes of places; or

                     (c)  will acquire goods or services of a particular kind or description directly or indirectly from another person not being a body corporate related to the first person.

             (9)  A person (the first person ) also engages in the practice of exclusive dealing if the first person refuses to grant or renew, or exercises a power or right to terminate, a lease of, or a licence in respect of, land or a building or part of a building for the reason that another party to the lease or licence or, if that other party is a body corporate, a body corporate related to that body corporate:

                     (a)  has acquired, or has not agreed not to acquire, goods or services, or goods or services of a particular kind or description, directly or indirectly from a competitor of the first person or from a competitor of a body corporate related to the first person;

                     (b)  has re-supplied, or has not agreed not to re-supply, goods or services, or goods or services of a particular kind or description, acquired directly or indirectly from a competitor of the first person or from a competitor of a body corporate related to the first person;

                     (c)  has supplied goods or services, or goods or services of a particular kind or description:

                              (i)  to particular persons or classes of persons or to persons other than particular persons or classes of persons; or

                             (ii)  in particular places or classes of places or in places other than particular places or classes of places; or

                     (d)  has not acquired, or has not agreed to acquire, goods or services of a particular kind or description directly or indirectly from another person not being a body corporate related to the first person.

           (10)  Subsection (1) does not apply to the practice of exclusive dealing by a person unless:

                     (a)  the engaging by the person in the conduct that constitutes the practice of exclusive dealing has the purpose, or has or is likely to have the effect, of substantially lessening competition; or

                     (b)  the engaging by the person in the conduct that constitutes the practice of exclusive dealing, and the engaging by the person, or by a body corporate related to the person, in other conduct of the same or a similar kind, together have or are likely to have the effect of substantially lessening competition.

           (11)  Subsections (8) and (9) do not apply with respect to:

                     (a)  conduct engaged in:

                              (i)  by a registered charity; and

                             (ii)  for or in accordance with the purposes or objects of that registered charity; or

                     (b)  conduct engaged in in pursuance of a legally enforceable requirement made by a registered charity, being a requirement made for or in accordance with the purposes or objects of that registered charity.

           (12)  Subsection (1) does not apply with respect to any conduct engaged in by a body corporate by way of restricting dealings by another body corporate if those bodies corporate are related to each other.

           (13)  In this section:

                     (a)  a reference to a condition shall be read as a reference to any condition, whether direct or indirect and whether having legal or equitable force or not, and includes a reference to a condition the existence or nature of which is ascertainable only by inference from the conduct of persons or from other relevant circumstances;

                     (b)  a reference to competition, in relation to conduct to which a provision of this section other than subsection (8) or (9) applies, shall be read as a reference to competition in any market in which:

                              (i)  the person engaging in the conduct or any body corporate related to that person; or

                             (ii)  any person whose business dealings are restricted, limited or otherwise circumscribed by the conduct or, if that person is a body corporate, any body corporate related to that body corporate;

                            supplies or acquires, or is likely to supply or acquire, goods or services or would, but for the conduct, supply or acquire, or be likely to supply or acquire, goods or services; and

                     (c)  a reference to competition, in relation to conduct to which subsection (8) or (9) applies, shall be read as a reference to competition in any market in which the person engaging in the conduct or any other person whose business dealings are restricted, limited or otherwise circumscribed by the conduct, or any body corporate related to either of those persons, supplies or acquires, or is likely to supply or acquire, goods or services or would, but for the conduct, supply or acquire, or be likely to supply or acquire, goods or services.

48   Resale price maintenance

             (1)  A person shall not engage in the practice of resale price maintenance.

             (2)  Subsection (1) does not apply to a person engaging in conduct that constitutes the practice of resale price maintenance if:

                     (a)  the person has given the Commission a notice under subsection 93(1) describing the conduct; and

                     (b)  the notice is in force under section 93.

49   Dual listed company arrangements that affect competition

             (1)  A person must not:

                     (a)  make a dual listed company arrangement if a provision of the proposed arrangement has the purpose, or would have or be likely to have the effect, of substantially lessening competition; or

                     (b)  give effect to a provision of a dual listed company arrangement if that provision has the purpose, or has or is likely to have the effect, of substantially lessening competition.

Note:          Conduct that would otherwise contravene this section can be authorised under section 88.

Exception

             (2)  The making by a person of a dual listed company arrangement that contains a provision that has the purpose, or would have or be likely to have the effect, of substantially lessening competition does not contravene this section if:

                     (a)  the arrangement is subject to a condition that the provision will not come into force unless and until the person is granted an authorisation to give effect to the provision; and

                     (b)  the person applies for the grant of such an authorisation within 14 days after the arrangement is made.

However, this subsection does not permit the person to give effect to such a provision.

Meaning of competition

             (3)  For the purposes of this section, competition , in relation to a provision of a dual listed company arrangement or of a proposed dual listed company arrangement, means competition in any market in which:

                     (a)  a person that is a party to the arrangement or would be a party to the proposed arrangement; or

                     (b)  any body corporate related to such a person;

supplies or acquires, or is likely to supply or acquire, goods or services or would, apart from the provision, supply or acquire, or be likely to supply or acquire, goods or services.

             (4)  For the purposes of the application of this section in relation to a particular person, a provision of a dual listed company arrangement or of a proposed dual listed company arrangement is taken to have, or to be likely to have, the effect of substantially lessening competition if that provision and any one or more of the following provisions:

                     (a)  the other provisions of that arrangement or proposed arrangement;

                     (b)  the provisions of any other contract, arrangement or understanding or proposed contract, arrangement or understanding to which the person or a body corporate related to the person is or would be a party;

together have or are likely to have that effect.

50   Prohibition of acquisitions that would result in a substantial lessening of competition

             (1)  A person must not directly or indirectly:

                     (a)  acquire shares in the capital of a body corporate; or

                     (b)  acquire any assets of a person;

if the acquisition would have the effect, or be likely to have the effect, of substantially lessening competition in any market.

Note:          The person will not be prevented from making the acquisition if the corporation is granted an authorisation for the acquisition under section 88.

             (3)  Without limiting the matters that may be taken into account for the purposes of subsection (1) in determining whether the acquisition would have the effect, or be likely to have the effect, of substantially lessening competition in a market, the following matters must be taken into account:

                     (a)  the actual and potential level of import competition in the market;

                     (b)  the height of barriers to entry to the market;

                     (c)  the level of concentration in the market;

                     (d)  the degree of countervailing power in the market;

                     (e)  the likelihood that the acquisition would result in the acquirer being able to significantly and sustainably increase prices or profit margins;

                      (f)  the extent to which substitutes are available in the market or are likely to be available in the market;

                     (g)  the dynamic characteristics of the market, including growth, innovation and product differentiation;

                     (h)  the likelihood that the acquisition would result in the removal from the market of a vigorous and effective competitor;

                      (i)  the nature and extent of vertical integration in the market.

             (4)  Where:

                     (a)  a person has entered into a contract to acquire shares in the capital of a body corporate or assets of a person;

                     (b)  the contract is subject to a condition that the provisions of the contract relating to the acquisition will not come into force unless and until the person has been granted an authorization to acquire the shares or assets; and

                     (c)  the person applied for the grant of such an authorization before the expiration of 14 days after the contract was entered into;

the acquisition of the shares or assets shall not be regarded for the purposes of this Act as having taken place in pursuance of the contract before:

                     (d)  the application for the authorization is disposed of; or

                     (e)  the contract ceases to be subject to the condition;

whichever first happens.

          (5A)  For the purposes of subsection (4), an application for an authorisation is taken to be disposed of 14 days after the day the Tribunal makes a determination on the application.

             (6)  In this section:

"market" means a market for goods or services in:

                     (a)  Australia; or

                     (b)  a State; or

                     (c)  a Territory; or

                     (d)  a region of Australia.

51   Exceptions

             (1)  In deciding whether a person has contravened this Part, the following must be disregarded:

                     (a)  anything that is disregarded for the purposes of Part IV of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010 because of subsection 51(1) of that Act;

                     (b)  anything done in a State, if the thing is specified in, and specifically authorised by:

                              (i)  an Act passed by the Parliament of that State; or

                             (ii)  regulations made under such an Act;

                     (c)  anything done in the Australian Capital Territory, if the thing is specified in, and specifically authorised by:

                              (i)  an enactment as defined in section 3 of the Australian Capital Territory (Self-Government) Act 1988 ; or

                             (ii)  regulations made under such an enactment;

                     (d)  anything done in the Northern Territory, if the thing is specified in, and specifically authorised by:

                              (i)  an enactment as defined in section 4 of the Northern Territory (Self-Government) Act 1978 ; or

                             (ii)  regulations made under such an enactment;

                     (e)  anything done in another Territory, if the thing is specified in, and specifically authorised by:

                              (i)  an Ordinance of that Territory; or

                             (ii)  regulations made under such an Ordinance.

          (1A)  Without limiting subsection (1), conduct is taken to be specified in, and authorised by, a law for the purposes of that subsection if:

                     (a)  a licence or other instrument issued or made under the law specifies one or both of the following:

                              (i)  the person authorised to engage in the conduct;

                             (ii)  the place where the conduct is to occur; and

                     (b)  the law specifies the attributes of the conduct except those mentioned in paragraph (a).

For this purpose, law means a State Act, enactment or Ordinance.

          (1B)  Subsections (1) and (1A) apply regardless of when the State Acts, enactments, Ordinances, regulations or instruments referred to in those subsections were passed, made or issued.

          (1C)  The operation of subsection (1) (other than paragraph (1)(a)) is subject to the following limitations:

                     (a)  in order for something to be regarded as specifically authorised for the purposes of subsection (1), the authorising provision must expressly refer to the Competition Code;

                     (b)  paragraphs (1)(b), (c), (d) and (e) do not apply in deciding whether a person has contravened section 50;

                     (c)  regulations referred to in subparagraph (1)(b)(ii), (c)(ii), (d)(ii) or (e)(ii) do not have the effect of requiring a particular thing to be disregarded if the thing happens more than 2 years after those regulations came into operation;

                     (d)  regulations referred to in subparagraph (1)(b)(ii), (c)(ii) or (d)(ii) do not have the effect of requiring a particular thing to be disregarded to the extent that the regulations are the same in substance as other regulations that:

                              (i)  were made for the purposes of the subparagraph concerned; and

                             (ii)  came into operation more than 2 years before the particular thing happened.

             (2)  In determining whether a contravention of a provision of this Part other than section 45D, 45DA, 45E, 45EA or 48 has been committed, regard shall not be had:

                     (a)  to any act done, or concerted practice, to the extent that it relates to the remuneration, conditions of employment, hours of work or working conditions of employees; or

                    (aa)  to:

                              (i)  the making of a contract or arrangement, or the entering into of an understanding; or

                             (ii)  any provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding;

                            to the extent that the contract, arrangement, understanding or provision relates to the remuneration, conditions of employment, hours of work or working conditions of employees; or

                     (b)  to any provision of a contract of service or of a contract for the provision of services, being a provision under which a person, not being a body corporate, agrees to accept restrictions as to the work, whether as an employee or otherwise, in which he or she may engage during, or after the termination of, the contract; or

                     (c)  to:

                              (i)  any provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding; or

                             (ii)  any concerted practice;

                            to the extent that the provision or concerted practice obliges a person to comply with or apply standards of dimension, design, quality or performance prepared or approved by Standards Australia or a prescribed association or body; or

                     (d)  to:

                              (i)  any provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding; or

                             (ii)  any concerted practice;

                            between partners none of whom is a body corporate, to the extent that the provision or concerted practice relates to:

                            (iii)  the terms of the partnership; or

                            (iv)  the conduct of the partnership business; or

                             (v)  competition between the partnership and a party to the contract, arrangement, understanding or concerted practice, while the party is, or after the party ceases to be, a partner; or

                     (e)  in the case of a contract for the sale of a business or of shares in the capital of a body corporate carrying on a business--to any provision of the contract that is solely for the protection of the purchaser in respect of the goodwill of the business; or

                     (g)  to:

                              (i)  any provision of a contract, arrangement or understanding; or

                             (ii)  any concerted practice;

                            to the extent that the provision or concerted practice relates exclusively to:

                            (iii)  the export of goods from Australia; or

                            (iv)  the supply of services outside Australia;

                            if full and accurate particulars of the provision or concerted practice were given to the Commission no more than 14 days after the day the contract or arrangement was made or the understanding or concerted practice was entered into, or before 8 September 1976, whichever was the later.

       (2AA)  For the purposes of paragraph (2)(g), the particulars to be given to the Commission:

                     (a)  need not include particulars of prices for the goods or services; but

                     (b)  must include particulars of any method of fixing, controlling or maintaining such prices.

          (2A)  In determining whether a contravention of a provision of this Part other than section 48 has been committed, regard shall not be had to any acts done, otherwise than in the course of trade or commerce, in concert by ultimate users or consumers of goods or services against the suppliers of those goods or services.




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